Evolution Throughout the Ages: Its History & Biological Evidence

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The Theory of Evolution was notably introduced by naturalist Charles Darwin during the 1800s. It asserts that a species innately evolves through a passage of time by means of natural selection; this development within the organism allows the species to appropriately adapt to its environment. Furthermore, it mentions that different species can originate from a common ancestor. This relatively modern theory, however, is not the first of its time. Several philosophers and naturalists prior to and following Darwin’s time have been conducive in establishing the basis of modern evolution today.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF EVOLUTION:

Anaximander
Greek philosopher Anaximander (610 - 546 BCE) was one of the initial to consider evolution relative to the progression of diverse animal species and their sole antecedent. At the time, it was believed that animals originated from other animals. Anaximander was under the impression that all species alike commonly sourced back to the ocean, or more particularly, fish. Although these ideas were not further adopted, Anaximander successfully established himself as one of the primary thinkers to explore this field of thought.

Anaximander
Greek philosopher Anaximander (610 - 546 BCE) was one of the initial to consider evolution relative to the progression of diverse animal species and their sole antecedent. At the time, it was believed that animals originated from other animals. Anaximander was under the impression that all species alike commonly sourced back to the ocean, or more particularly, fish. Although these ideas were not further adopted, Anaximander successfully established himself as one of the primary thinkers to explore this field of thought.

Anaximander
Greek philosopher Anaximander (610 - 546 BCE) was one of the initial to consider evolution relative to the progression of diverse animal species and their sole antecedent. At the time, it was believed that animals originated from other animals. Anaximander was under the impression that all species alike commonly sourced back to the ocean, or more particularly, fish. Although these ideas were not further adopted, Anaximander successfully established himself as one of the primary thinkers to explore this field of thought.

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Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was capable of formulating his own evolutionary proposal by noting similarities that existed between various animals. He established that organisms, in order to survive, were required to correspondingly adapt to their respective surroundings, and emphasized that necessary traits required for survival would be inherited by generations of a species. This would result in new species being formed and was described by a coined phrase, the “Lamarckian inheritance” (although his ideas were later declined by Darwin). Initially, Lamarck served as a botanist for a period of time, though later he carried on to specialize with a class of organisms known as invertebrates.

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was capable of formulating his own evolutionary proposal by noting similarities that existed between various animals. He established that organisms, in order to survive, were required to correspondingly adapt to their respective surroundings, and emphasized that necessary traits required for survival would be inherited by generations of a species. This would result in new species being formed and was described by a coined phrase, the “Lamarckian inheritance” (although his ideas were later declined by Darwin). Initially, Lamarck served as a botanist for a period of time, though later he carried on to specialize with a class of organisms known as invertebrates.

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was capable of formulating his own evolutionary proposal by noting similarities that existed between various animals. He established that organisms, in order to survive, were required to correspondingly adapt to their respective surroundings, and emphasized that necessary traits required for survival would be inherited by generations of a species. This would result in new species being formed and was described by a coined phrase, the “Lamarckian inheritance” (although his ideas were later declined by Darwin). Initially, Lamarck served as a botanist for a period of time, though later he carried on to specialize with a class of organisms known as invertebrates.

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Charles Darwin
Naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) carried an instrumental role in the modern viewpoint of evolving species by means of a process called “natural selection”. Upon studying and observing a multitude of organisms during his explorations in the 1830s, Darwin was able to construct his personal viewpoint on evolution and produce his respective theories. To summarize, Darwin stated that the evolution of a species took place due to natural selection, described as a natural process in which only the most adapted organisms would survive in an environment. His theory has been recorded and elaborated in his book, On the Origin of Species.

Charles Darwin
Naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) carried an instrumental role in the modern viewpoint of evolving species by means of a process called “natural selection”. Upon studying and observing a multitude of organisms during his explorations in the 1830s, Darwin was able to construct his personal viewpoint on evolution and produce his respective theories. To summarize, Darwin stated that the evolution of a species took place due to natural selection, described as a natural process in which only the most adapted organisms would survive in an environment. His theory has been recorded and elaborated in his book, On the Origin of Species.

Charles Darwin
Naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) carried an instrumental role in the modern viewpoint of evolving species by means of a process called “natural selection”. Upon studying and observing a multitude of organisms during his explorations in the 1830s, Darwin was able to construct his personal viewpoint on evolution and produce his respective theories. To summarize, Darwin stated that the evolution of a species took place due to natural selection, described as a natural process in which only the most adapted organisms would survive in an environment. His theory has been recorded and elaborated in his book, On the Origin of Species.

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Herbert Spencer
English philosopher and sociologist Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) demonstrated a prime interest in ideas considering both physical and biological evolution and used them to formulate his personal outlook on the theory Darwin had earlier introduced. His work is noted to have contributed greatly within Sociology due to his ideas regarding social evolution. Spencer is notably famed for having devised the term “survival of the fittest”. This phrase was eventually adopted in Darwin’s On the Origin of Species.

Herbert Spencer
English philosopher and sociologist Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) demonstrated a prime interest in ideas considering both physical and biological evolution and used them to formulate his personal outlook on the theory Darwin had earlier introduced. His work is noted to have contributed greatly within Sociology due to his ideas regarding social evolution. Spencer is notably famed for having devised the term “survival of the fittest”. This phrase was eventually adopted in Darwin’s On the Origin of Species.

Herbert Spencer
English philosopher and sociologist Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) demonstrated a prime interest in ideas considering both physical and biological evolution and used them to formulate his personal outlook on the theory Darwin had earlier introduced. His work is noted to have contributed greatly within Sociology due to his ideas regarding social evolution. Spencer is notably famed for having devised the term “survival of the fittest”. This phrase was eventually adopted in Darwin’s On the Origin of Species.

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Darwin’s Finches
A collection of approximately fifteen species of birds titled ‘Darwin’s finches’ inhabiting the Galapagos Islands assumed a pivotal role in formulating the basis of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, assisting him in arriving to a firm conclusion regarding natural selection. The finches were in fact distinguishable species that shared a common ancestor. He found that the beaks of the finches were structured differently on the basis of what they consumed. Darwin’s finches stand as a prime example of “adaptive radiation”, in which organisms evolve from an ancestor and develop into distinctive species.

Darwin’s Finches
A collection of approximately fifteen species of birds titled ‘Darwin’s finches’ inhabiting the Galapagos Islands assumed a pivotal role in formulating the basis of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, assisting him in arriving to a firm conclusion regarding natural selection. The finches were in fact distinguishable species that shared a common ancestor. He found that the beaks of the finches were structured differently on the basis of what they consumed. Darwin’s finches stand as a prime example of “adaptive radiation”, in which organisms evolve from an ancestor and develop into distinctive species.

Darwin’s Finches
A collection of approximately fifteen species of birds titled ‘Darwin’s finches’ inhabiting the Galapagos Islands assumed a pivotal role in formulating the basis of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, assisting him in arriving to a firm conclusion regarding natural selection. The finches were in fact distinguishable species that shared a common ancestor. He found that the beaks of the finches were structured differently on the basis of what they consumed. Darwin’s finches stand as a prime example of “adaptive radiation”, in which organisms evolve from an ancestor and develop into distinctive species.

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The Peppered Moth
The peppered moth is a distinguished example of physical evolution and natural selection which occurred throughout the Industrial Revolution, particularly in Manchester, England. As an aftermath of the air pollution existent in the region due to industrial waste, the trees in the area had darkened due to being covered with soot. The moth population inhabiting the area experienced a darkening in color, which served as a protective mechanism against birds that would be able to easily recognize a light-colored moth against dark trees.

The Peppered Moth
The peppered moth is a distinguished example of physical evolution and natural selection which occurred throughout the Industrial Revolution, particularly in Manchester, England. As an aftermath of the air pollution existent in the region due to industrial waste, the trees in the area had darkened due to being covered with soot. The moth population inhabiting the area experienced a darkening in color, which served as a protective mechanism against birds that would be able to easily recognize a light-colored moth against dark trees.

The Peppered Moth
The peppered moth is a distinguished example of physical evolution and natural selection which occurred throughout the Industrial Revolution, particularly in Manchester, England. As an aftermath of the air pollution existent in the region due to industrial waste, the trees in the area had darkened due to being covered with soot. The moth population inhabiting the area experienced a darkening in color, which served as a protective mechanism against birds that would be able to easily recognize a light-colored moth against dark trees.

Image is not available
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FEATHERED DINOSAURS
A seemingly atypical case of physical adaptation involves dinosaurs donned with a feathered coat. Such kinds of species were discovered to have existed in northern China. Their feathers, however, were not for the purpose of flight. Rather, it is believed that the feathery covering served as an insulating layer, or as a means of insulating their eggs. Another factor was the color and size of the feathers, as they are believed to have served as a means of camouflage during particular seasons.

FEATHERED DINOSAURS
A seemingly atypical case of physical adaptation involves dinosaurs donned with a feathered coat. Such kinds of species were discovered to have existed in northern China. Their feathers, however, were not for the purpose of flight. Rather, it is believed that the feathery covering served as an insulating layer, or as a means of insulating their eggs. Another factor was the color and size of the feathers, as they are believed to have served as a means of camouflage during particular seasons.

FEATHERED DINOSAURS
A seemingly atypical case of physical adaptation involves dinosaurs donned with a feathered coat. Such kinds of species were discovered to have existed in northern China. Their feathers, however, were not for the purpose of flight. Rather, it is believed that the feathery covering served as an insulating layer, or as a means of insulating their eggs. Another factor was the color and size of the feathers, as they are believed to have served as a means of camouflage during particular seasons.

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Maryam Ali, currently studying at Lahore Grammar School 55 Main, is an avid writer aspiring to convey her passion for mathematics and the sciences through the written word. Her prime interests include using public speaking and writing to communicate the voice of the underprivileged and impart her enthusiasms to others.
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