Astronomy: Exploring Universe Beyond The Earth

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    To the common man, Earth is a finitely vast planet with an astounding expanse of both land and water. However, to astronomers and astrophysicists who carry out studies external to our planetary environment, it is understood that the Earth occupies a nearly negligible fraction of our universe’s constituents. Astronomy is a distinctive branch of science that deals with this continuously expanding space and the study of its components. The following is a list of distinctive facts regarding outer space you probably may not have known.

    The entirety of celestial bodies and structures present within our universe carry a particular density value depending on the composition of the body. For instance, Earth’s density stands at approximately 5.51 g/cm3, whereas Jupiter’s is recorded at 1.33 g/cm3 etc. Saturn, a planet comprising of a gaseous outer atmosphere and a firmer icy core has an estimated density of 0.687 g/cm3, a comparatively minute quantity in contrast to other (notably smaller) planets present within the solar system. Therefore, due to its trifling density value, Saturn is stated to be the individual planet that theoretically would float on water.

    The entirety of celestial bodies and structures present within our universe carry a particular density value depending on the composition of the body. For instance, Earth’s density stands at approximately 5.51 g/cm3, whereas Jupiter’s is recorded at 1.33 g/cm3 etc. Saturn, a planet comprising of a gaseous outer atmosphere and a firmer icy core has an estimated density of 0.687 g/cm3, a comparatively minute quantity in contrast to other (notably smaller) planets present within the solar system. Therefore, due to its trifling density value, Saturn is stated to be the individual planet that theoretically would float on water.

    The entirety of celestial bodies and structures present within our universe carry a particular density value depending on the composition of the body. For instance, Earth’s density stands at approximately 5.51 g/cm3, whereas Jupiter’s is recorded at 1.33 g/cm3 etc. Saturn, a planet comprising of a gaseous outer atmosphere and a firmer icy core has an estimated density of 0.687 g/cm3, a comparatively minute quantity in contrast to other (notably smaller) planets present within the solar system. Therefore, due to its trifling density value, Saturn is stated to be the individual planet that theoretically would float on water.

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    The speed of light in a vacuum is recognized as a quantity with profuse application within a multitude of physical concepts; it is recorded at approximately 3.0 x 108 meters per second. However, when exploring the vastness of the Milky Way, the galaxy that our solar system occupies, it is estimated that light would take 100,000 ‘light years’ to journey across its expanse. This figure places the magnitude of our galaxy’s cosmic size into perspective, and consequently, the unimaginably extensive area of the universe, too, that hosts an innumerable amount of similar star systems.

    The speed of light in a vacuum is recognized as a quantity with profuse application within a multitude of physical concepts; it is recorded at approximately 3.0 x 108 meters per second. However, when exploring the vastness of the Milky Way, the galaxy that our solar system occupies, it is estimated that light would take 100,000 ‘light years’ to journey across its expanse. This figure places the magnitude of our galaxy’s cosmic size into perspective, and consequently, the unimaginably extensive area of the universe, too, that hosts an innumerable amount of similar star systems.

    The speed of light in a vacuum is recognized as a quantity with profuse application within a multitude of physical concepts; it is recorded at approximately 3.0 x 108 meters per second. However, when exploring the vastness of the Milky Way, the galaxy that our solar system occupies, it is estimated that light would take 100,000 ‘light years’ to journey across its expanse. This figure places the magnitude of our galaxy’s cosmic size into perspective, and consequently, the unimaginably extensive area of the universe, too, that hosts an innumerable amount of similar star systems.

    Image is not available

    Polaris, more commonly referred to as the ‘North Star’ has served as a means of directional navigation for explorers before the formal introduction of assisting devices. This is due to Polaris being positioned above Earth’s North Pole, making it a ‘Pole Star’. Due to the continuous and minute shifting of Earth’s axis, the identity of Pole Stars can alter over the course of thousands of years. Prior to Polaris, Vega was the preceding North Star, and it is predicted that in 12,000 years Vega will replace Polaris, with the Earth’s axis having been repositioned so that it is located above the North Pole.

    Polaris, more commonly referred to as the ‘North Star’ has served as a means of directional navigation for explorers before the formal introduction of assisting devices. This is due to Polaris being positioned above Earth’s North Pole, making it a ‘Pole Star’. Due to the continuous and minute shifting of Earth’s axis, the identity of Pole Stars can alter over the course of thousands of years. Prior to Polaris, Vega was the preceding North Star, and it is predicted that in 12,000 years Vega will replace Polaris, with the Earth’s axis having been repositioned so that it is located above the North Pole.

    Polaris, more commonly referred to as the ‘North Star’ has served as a means of directional navigation for explorers before the formal introduction of assisting devices. This is due to Polaris being positioned above Earth’s North Pole, making it a ‘Pole Star’. Due to the continuous and minute shifting of Earth’s axis, the identity of Pole Stars can alter over the course of thousands of years. Prior to Polaris, Vega was the preceding North Star, and it is predicted that in 12,000 years Vega will replace Polaris, with the Earth’s axis having been repositioned so that it is located above the North Pole.

    Image is not available
    Image is not available

    Astronomers have located a ‘supermassive’ black hole situated at the core of the Milky Way, which is stated to be relatively inactive as opposed to its inordinate activity in the previous 2 million years. This black hole, officially named Sagittarius A*, has been believed to be surrounded by thousands of other black holes clustered toward the center of our galaxy. Sagittarius A* reportedly accounts to a mass that is four million times that of our Sun and is positioned approximately 26,000 light years from Earth.

    Astronomers have located a ‘supermassive’ black hole situated at the core of the Milky Way, which is stated to be relatively inactive as opposed to its inordinate activity in the previous 2 million years. This black hole, officially named Sagittarius A*, has been believed to be surrounded by thousands of other black holes clustered toward the center of our galaxy. Sagittarius A* reportedly accounts to a mass that is four million times that of our Sun and is positioned approximately 26,000 light years from Earth.

    Astronomers have located a ‘supermassive’ black hole situated at the core of the Milky Way, which is stated to be relatively inactive as opposed to its inordinate activity in the previous 2 million years. This black hole, officially named Sagittarius A* has been believed to be surrounded by thousands of other black holes clustered toward the center of our galaxy. Sagittarius A* reportedly accounts to a mass that is four million times that of our Sun and is positioned approximately 26,000 light years from Earth.

    Image is not available

    Outer space is a continuously expanding expanse of vacuum, meaning that air particles are virtually nonexistent in it. Hence, opposing frictional forces (e.g. air resistance) arising as a result of these particles are not experienced by moving bodies in space. Instead, a negligible quantity of dust particles and gases of low densities found in space can result in a very slight air resistance being produced. This means that an object traveling at a particular speed within the space vacuum will continue to traverse at that speed for a long time (millions of years) until and unless it comes into contact with another object or the air resistance at some point reduces its motion.

    Outer space is a continuously expanding expanse of vacuum, meaning that air particles are virtually nonexistent in it. Hence, opposing frictional forces (e.g. air resistance) arising as a result of these particles are not experienced by moving bodies in space. Instead, a negligible quantity of dust particles and gases of low densities found in space can result in a very slight air resistance being produced. This means that an object traveling at a particular speed within the space vacuum will continue to traverse at that speed for a long time (millions of years) until and unless it comes into contact with another object or the air resistance at some point reduces its motion.

    Outer space is a continuously expanding expanse of vacuum, meaning that air particles are virtually nonexistent in it. Hence, opposing frictional forces (e.g. air resistance) arising as a result of these particles are not experienced by moving bodies in space. Instead, a negligible quantity of dust particles and gases of low densities found in space can result in a very slight air resistance being produced. This means that an object traveling at a particular speed within the space vacuum will continue to traverse at that speed for a long time (millions of years) until and unless it comes into contact with another object or the air resistance at some point reduces its motion.

    Image is not available

    While matter may appear as a paramount constituent to space, the reality is much different. Actually, the quantity of regular matter within space, which man-made instruments can detect, amounts to less than 5% of our universe’s respective components. As opposed to regular matter, dark energy and dark matter occupy a substantial fraction of space, approximately 70% and 25% respectively.

    While matter may appear as a paramount constituent to space, the reality is much different. Actually, the quantity of regular matter within space, which man-made instruments can detect, amounts to less than 5% of our universe’s respective components. As opposed to regular matter, dark energy and dark matter occupy a substantial fraction of space, approximately 70% and 25% respectively.

    While matter may appear as a paramount constituent to space, the reality is much different. Actually, the quantity of regular matter within space, which man-made instruments can detect, amounts to less than 5% of our universe’s respective components. As opposed to regular matter, dark energy and dark matter occupy a substantial fraction of space, approximately 70% and 25% respectively.

    Image is not available

    Created as an aftermath of cloud collapse is a visibly shadowed structure of dust, located approximately 1500 light years from our solar system. The Horsehead Nebula, or more formally, Barnard 33, is a member of the Orion constellation, famously named after its resembling animalistic appearance. When viewing captured images of the nebula, it is seen that the Horsehead appears to visibly illuminate against a glowing backdrop. The material the nebula is made of, including dense gases, behaves as a thick veil that does not allow light to trespass, hence allowing its silhouette to be prominently observed.

    Created as an aftermath of cloud collapse is a visibly shadowed structure of dust, located approximately 1500 light years from our solar system. The Horsehead Nebula, or more formally, Barnard 33, is a member of the Orion constellation, famously named after its resembling animalistic appearance. When viewing captured images of the nebula, it is seen that the Horsehead appears to visibly illuminate against a glowing backdrop. The material the nebula is made of, including dense gases, behaves as a thick veil that does not allow light to trespass, hence allowing its silhouette to be prominently observed.

    Created as an aftermath of cloud collapse there is a visibly shadowed structure of dust, located approximately 1500 light years from our solar system. The Horsehead Nebula, or more formally, Barnard 33, is a member of the Orion constellation, famously named after its resembling animalistic appearance. When viewing captured images of the nebula, it is seen that the Horsehead appears to visibly illuminate against a glowing backdrop. The material the nebula is made of, including dense gases, behaves as a thick veil that does not allow light to trespass, hence allowing its silhouette to be prominently observed.

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    Maryam Ali, currently studying at Lahore Grammar School 55 Main, is an avid writer aspiring to convey her passion for mathematics and the sciences through the written word. Her prime interests include using public speaking and writing to communicate the voice of the underprivileged and impart her enthusiasms to others.
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